Emanuel Tov

Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible

Монографический учебник написан одним из крупнейших в мире специалистов, главным редактором проекта публикации рукописей Мертвого моря. Автор вводит читателя в круг проблем современной ветхозаветной текстологии. Книга рассчитана на библеистов, филологов, гебраистов и студентов гуманитарно-богословских высших учебных заведений.

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Abbreviations and Notations

Periodicals, Reference Works, and Serials

Short Titles and Abbreviations of Works Frequently Cited


System of Transliteration

Chapter 1: Introduction

A. The Need for the Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible

    1. Differences between the Many Textual Witnesses of the Bible

        a. Sequence of Books

        b. Chapter Division

        c. The Layout of the Text

        d. Verse Division

        e. Single Letters and Words

        f. Vocalization and Accentuation

        g. The Notes of the Masorah

    2. Mistakes, Corrections, and Changes in the Textual Witnesses, Including Masoretic Text

    3. In Many Details fli Does Not Reflect the "Original Text" of the Biblical Books

    4. Differences between Inner-Biblical Parallel Texts

B. A Modern Approach to the Textual Criticism of the Bible

C. The Beginnings of the Critical Inquiry of the Biblical Text

D. Definitions and Concepts

Chapter 2: Textual Witnesses of the Bible

I. Hebrew Witnesses

    A. Proto-Masoretic Texts and the Masoretic Text

        1. The Consonantal Framework: Proto-Masoretic Texts and Masoretic Text

            a. Internal Differences in the Group of Masoretic Text

                α. Medinhae—Maarbae

                β. Variants in Manuscripts Reflecting Different Systems of Vocalization

                γ. Masoretic Notes

            b. The Early Origin of the Consonantal Framework of Masoretic Text

            c. The Origin and Nature of Masoretic Text

            d. The Evolution of the Early Consonantal Text of Masoretic Text

                α. Background

                β. Sources

                γ. The Value of the Differences between Medieval Manuscripts

        2. Vocalization

            a. Background

            b. Systems of Vocalization

            c. Differences between the Systems of Vocalization

            d. The Character of the Tiberian Vocalization

        3. Para-Textual Elements

            a. The Division of the Text into Sections (Parashiyyot or Pisqaot), Verses, and Chapters

            b. Pisqah beemsa pasuq

            c. Inverted Nunim

            d. The Extraordinary Points (Puncta Extraordinaria)

            e. Suspended Letters (Litterae Suspensae)

            f. Special Letters

            g. Ketib-Qere

            h. Sebirin

            i. Corrections of the Scribes

            j. Omission of the Scribes

        4. Accentuation

        5. The Apparatus of the Masorah

            a. Content

            b. Masoretic Handbooks

            c. Editions of the Masorah

        6. Editions of Masoretic Text

    B. Pre-Samaritan Texts and the Samaritan Pentateuch

        1. Background

        2. Date and Origin

        3. Manuscripts and Editions

        4. The Nature of the Text

            a. Early (Pre-Samaritan) Elements in Samaritan Pentateuch

                α. Harmonizing Alterations

                β. Linguistic Corrections

                γ. Content Differences

                δ. Linguistic Differences

            b. Samaritan Elements

                α. Ideological Changes

                β. Phonological Changes

            c. Orthography

        5. The Pre-Samaritan Texts

    C. The Biblical Texts Found in Qumran

        1. Background

        2. The Evidence

        3. Chronological Background

        4. Publication of the Texts

        5. Characterization of the Texts Written in the Qumran Practice

            a. Orthography

            b. Morphology

            c. Contextual Adaptations

            d. Scribal Practices

        6. Variants in the Qumran Texts

        7. The Textual Status of the Qumran Texts

        8. The Contribution of the Qumran Texts to Biblical Research

    D. Additional Witnesses

        1. Minute Silver Rolls from Ketef Hinnom

        2. The Nash Papyrus

        3. Tefillin and Mezuzot from the Judean Desert

        4. The Severus Scroll and R. Meir's Torah

    E. Texts That Have Been Lost

II. The Ancient Translations

    A. The Use of the Ancient Translations in Textual Criticism

        1. Background

        2. Exegesis

            a. Linguistic Exegesis

            b. Contextual Exegesis

            c. Theological Exegesis

            d. Midrashic Tendencies

        3. Systems for the Representation of Hebrew Constructions in the Translation

        4. Inner-Translational Phenomena

        5. The Reconstruction of the Hebrew Source of the Translation

    B. The Evidence

        1. TheSeptuagint

            a. Name

            b. Scope

            c. Sequence of the Books

            d. The Original Form of Septuagint and Its Date

            e. Evidence

                α. Direct Witnesses

                β. Indirect Witnesses: Daughter Translations of Septuagint

            f. Editions

            g. Auxiliary Tools for the Study of Septuagint

            h. The Importance of Septuagint for Biblical Studies

        2. The Revisions of the Septuagint

            a. General

            b. The Background of the Revisions

            c. The Nature of the Revisions

            d. Pre-Hexaplaric Revisions

                α. Kaige-Theodotion

                β. Aquila

                γ. Symmachus

            e. Hexapla

            f. Post-Hexaplaric Revisions

        3. The Targumim

            a. Targumim to the Torah

                α. Targum Onqelos

                β. Palestinian Targumim

            b. Targum to the Prophets

            c. Targum to the Hagiographa

        4. Peshitta

        5. The Vulgate

        6. The Arabic Translation of Saadia

Chapter 3: The History of the Biblical Text

    A. The Relation between the Textual Witnesses

        1. The Relation between the Textual Witnesses in Research until 1947

        2. The Relation between the Textual Witnesses in Research after 1947

        3. A New Approach to the Relation between the Textual Witnesses

    B. The Original Shape of the Biblical Text

    C. Some Aspects of the Development of the Biblical Text

        1. The History of Research

        2. A New Description

Chapter 4: The Copying and Transmitting of the Biblical Text

    A. Background and Chronological Framework

    B. The Copying of the Biblical Text

        1. Materials, Shape, and Scope

        2. Writing Practices

            a. Word Division

            b. Final Letters

            c. Internal Division of the Text

            d. Stichometric Arrangement

            e. Scribal Marks and Procedures

                α. Correction of Errors

                β. Paragraphing

                γ. Other Markings

                δ. The Tetragrammaton

            f. Breaking up of Words

            g. Spaces between Biblical Books

        3. The Script

            a. Background

            b. Change of Script

            c. Evidence from Qumran

        4. Orthography

            a. Background

            b. Different Orthographical Practices in the Biblical Texts

            c. The Orthographical Practices of the Group of Masoretic Text

                α. Comparison with External Evidence

                β. Internal Analysis

                γ. Is There a System of Orthography in Masoretic Text?

                δ. Characterization of Individual Biblical Books

        5. Scribal Schools

                    Appendix 1: Tefillin and Mezuzot from the Judean Desert

                    Appendix 2: The Column Structure of a Qumran Text

    C. The Process of Textual Transmission

        1. Background

        2. Readings Created in the Course of the Textual Transmission

            a. Minuses

                α. Random Omissions

                β. Haplography

                γ. Homoioteleuton, Homoioarcton (Parablepsis)

            b. Pluses

                α. Dittography

                β. Doublets

            c. Changes

                c.i Interchange of Similar Letters

                    α. Graphic Similarity

                    β. Phonetic Similarity

                c.ii Different Conceptions of Word Division

                c.iii Differences Involving Matres Lectionis

                c.iv Differences Involving the Use of Final Letters

                c.v Vocalization

                c.vi Quiescent Aleph

                c.vii Complex Variants

                c.viii Abbreviations?

            d. Differences in Sequence

        3. Readings Intentionally Created by Scribes

            a. Linguistic-Stylistic Changes

            b. Synonymous Readings

            c. Harmonizations

            d. Exegetical Changes

                α. Contextual Changes

                β. Theological Changes

            e. Additions to the Body of the Text

Chapter 5: The Aim and Procedures of Textual Criticism

    A. The Aim of Textual Criticism

    B. The Procedures of Textual Criticism

Chapter 6: The Evaluation of Readings

    A. Background

    B. Textual Guidelines

        1. External Criteria

            a. Unequal Status of Textual Sources

            b. Preference for Masoretic Text

            c. Broad Attestation

            d. Age of Textual Witnesses

        2. Internal Criteria

            a. Lectio Difficilior Praeferenda / Praevalet / Praestat

            b. Lectio Brevior / Brevis Potior

            c. Assimilation to Parallel Passages (Harmonization)

            d. Interpretive Modification

    C. Preferable Readings

Chapter 7: Textual Criticism and Literary Criticism

    A. Background

    B. The Evidence

        1. Two Literary Strata of Jeremiah: Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate and 4QJerb,d, Rahlfs Septuagint

        2. Two Literary Strata of Joshua: Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint

        3. Two Literary Strata of Ezekiel: Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint

        4. Two Literary Strata in 1 Samuel 16-18: Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint

        5. Two Parallel Editions of Proverbs: Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint

        6. Different Chronological Systems in Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint in Genesis

        7. Different Chronological Systems in Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint in Kings

        8. Differences in Sequence between Masoretic Text, Targum, Peshitta, Vulgate, Rahlfs Septuagint

        9. Different Stages of the Development of the Parallel Accounts in 2 Kings 20 and Isaiah 38

        10. Different Stages of the Story in 1 Samuel 11

        11. Two Literary Strata in Judges 6

        12. Two Literary Strata in Deuteronomy 5

        13. Minor Differences

    C. Textual and Literary Evaluation of the Evidence

Chapter 8: Conjectural Emendation

    A. Background

    B. Types of Emendations

        1. Contextual Emendations

        2. Linguistic Emendations

            a. Grammar

            b. Parallels in Cognate Languages, Especially in Ugaritic

        3. Emendations for Metrical Reasons

Chapter 9: Critical Editions

    A. Background

        B. Biblia Hebraica and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia

        C. The Hebrew University Bible


Index 1: Ancient Sources

Index 2: Authors

Index 3: Subjects


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