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a, a[lfa

a, a[lfa , tov , indecl., first letter of the Gr. alphabet: as Numeral, aV = ei|" and prw`to" , but, Ëa = 1000. Changes of :

1. Aeol ., for e, a[llota for a[llote :—for o, ei[kati for ei[kosi :—reversely o for a , v. sub o .
2. Dor ., for e, a[lloka for - te :—in the body of words, iJarov" for iJerov" . 3. Ion. , for e, mevgaqo" for mevgeqo" :—reversely e for , v. sub e .
b. becomes h in the num. forms, diplhvsio", pollaplhvsio" for diplavsio", pollaplavsio" .
c. in some words, represents h , as mesambrivh for meshmbriva, ajmfi" -ba±tevw for ajmfi" -bhtevw .
d. for o , as ajrrwdevw for ojrrwdevw .
II. changes of a<Eth> :
1. h Ion. becomes a<Eth> Aeol. and Dor. in the 1st decl., as puvla, jAtreivda" for puvlh, jAtreivdh" : also when a is the vowel of the root, as qnavskw for qnhvskw ( QAN ); but h for e or ei is often retained in Aeol. and Dor. , as hjrcovman ( e[rcomai ), but ajrcovman ( a[rcomai ).
b. reversely, in Dor. , ae and aei in inflexions of Verbs in avw are contr. into h , as ejnivkh for - a<Eth>, oJrh`/" for - a`/" :—so in crasis, thjmav for ta; ejmav, khjgwvn for kai; ejgwvn .
c. in Dor. , ao and aw are contracted not into w , but into a<Eth> , v. W w .
2. in Ion. , h for a<Eth> is characteristic, as in 1st decl., sofivh, -hn, jAristagovrh", -hn : if the nom. ends in , the change only takes place in gen. and dat. ajlhvqeia±, -h", -h/, -an .


a- , insep. Prefix in compos.:

I. alpha privativum, expressing want or absence, Like Lat. in- , Engl. un-, sofov" wise, a[-sofo" un wise: v. ajn- . This a rarely precedes a vowel, as in a[-ato", aj-hqhv" : more often before the spir. asper, as aj-hvsshto", aj-ovrato", aj-ovristo" : sometimes a coalesces with the foll. vowel, as a[kwn ( ajevkwn ) , ajrgov" ( ajergov" ): before a vowel ajn- is more common. Regularly, it is only compounded with nouns; for exceptions,
v. ajboulevw , ajnhvdomai , ajtivzw .
II. alpha copulativum, expressing union, likeness, properly with spir. asper, as in a{-qroo", a{-pa" , but with spir. lenis, a[-koiti", a[-loco", aj-delfov", aj-tavlanto", aj-kovlouqo" . It is prob. akin to the Adv. a{ma .

III. alpha intensivum, said to answer to the Adv. a[gan , very. The existence of this a is doubtful: some words referred to it belong to a privativum, as aj-davkruto", aj-qevsfato", a[-xulo" ( v. sub vocc.); in others, as a[-skio", aj-tenhv", ajspergev", aj-skelev" , the a may be a copulativum.

IV. a euphonicum, as aj-blhcrov", aj-spaivrw, aj-stafiv", aj-sterophv for blhcrov", spaivrw, stafiv", sterophv . [ in all these cases, except by position. But Adjs. which begin with three short syllables have a<Eth> in dactylic metres, as aj-davmato", aj-qevmito", aj-kavmato", aj-pavlamo" : one Adj. aj-qavnato" , with its derivs., has a<Eth> in all metres.]


a\ , exclamation, like Lat. and Engl. ah! a\ deilev, a\ deilwv, a\ deiloiv , Hom. ; doubled, a\ a\ Aesch.


a{ a{ or a| a| , to express laughter, ha, ha, Eur ., Ar.

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