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things, Hdt.; ejn toi`" prw`toi among the first, Thuc.

B. oJ, hJ, tov , THE DEFINITE ARTICLE , the, the indefin. being ti;", ti; , a or an. The use of oJ, hJ, tov , as the Article sprung from its use as demonstr. Pron., to;n ojpivstaton him that was hindmost, i.e. the hindmost man, Il.; to;n a[riston him that was bravest, etc.;-also with Advs. to; privn, to; pavro" per, to; provsqen, to; trivton, ta; prw`ta all in Il.

II. the true Article is first fully established in Att.: it is omitted with prop. names and with appellatives which require no specification, as qeov", basileuv" :—but it is added to Prop. Names, when there has been previous mention of the person, as Thuc. speaks first of Peiqiva" , and then refers to him as oJ P .; or to give pecul. emphasis, like Lat. ille , oJ Lavi>o", oJ Foi`bo" Soph.

2. with Infinitives, which thereby become Substantives, to; ei\nai the being; to; fronei`n good sense, etc.
3. in neuter, to specify any word or expression, to; a[nqrwpo" the word man; to; levgw the word levgw ; to; mhde;n a[gan the sentiment ne quid nimis .’

4. before Pronouns,
a. before the pers. Pron., to give them greater emphasis, but only in acc., to;n ejmev, to;n se; kai; ejmev Plat.
5. before the interrog., to make the question more precise, to; tiv ; Aesch., etc.; ta; poi`a ; Eur.
III. Elliptic. expressions:
1. before the gen. of a prop. n., to express descent, oJ Diov" (sc. pai`" ) , hJ Lhtou`" (sc. qugavthr ) often in Att.; but sometimes, as appears from the context, to denote husband, brother, friend, wife: —then before a gen. it indicates all general relations, as, ta; th`" povlew" all that concerns the state; ta; tw`nÆAqhnaivwn fronei`n to hold with the Athenians, be on their side, Hdt.:—so with neut. of possess. Pron., to; ejmovn, to; sovn what regards me or thee, my or thy business. But to; tino" is often also, a mans saying, as, to; tou` Sovlwno" Hdt.

2. with cases governed by Preps., oiJ ejn th`/ povlei, oiJ ajpo; (or ejk ) th`" povlew" the men of the city; oiJ ajmfiv tina, oiJ periv tina such an one and his followers, but also periphr. for the person himself.

3. on ma; tovn , v. mav IV .
4. poreuvesqai th;n e[xw teivcou" (sc. oJdovn ), Plat.; krivnasqai th;n ejpi;qavnaton , v. qavnato" 1. 2; hJ au[rion (sc. hJmevra ) the morrow:—also with Advs., which thus take an Adject. sense, as, oJ, hJ, to; nu`n the present; oiJ tovte a[nqrwpoi the men of that time, also oiJ tovte, oiJ nu`n , etc.; to; privn formerly; to; provsqen, to; prw`ton , etc.; to; ajpo; touvtou, to; ajpo; tou`de from the present time, etc.

C. C RASIS OF A RT .:—in Trag. oJ, hJ, tov , with make a<Eth> , as aJnhvr, a{nqrwpo", aJlhvqeia, aJrethv, tajgaqovn, tajdikei`n, ta[/tion ; so, oiJ, aiJ, tav , as a{ndre", a{nqrwpoi, tajgaqav, tajkivnhta ; also tou`, tw`/ , as tavgaqou`, tajgaqw`/ :— oJ, tov, oiJ , with e become ou, ouJx, ouJpiv, ouJmov", tou[rgon, ouJpicwvrioi , etc.; also tou` , as toujmou`, toujpiovnto" ;but in one case a<Eth>, a{tero", qa[teron , for ou[tero" (which is Ion.); tw`/ remains unchanged, twjmw`/, twjpiovnti :— hJ with e becomes a<Eth>, aJtevra :— oJ, tov before o becomes ou , as Ou{lumpio", tou[noma :— oJ, tov , etc., before au do not change the diphthong, auJtov", taujtov, taujtw`/ ; so, ta; aujtav = taujtav, aiJ aujtaiv = auJtaiv :— hJ before euj becomes huJ , as huJlavbeia :— th`/ before hJ becomes qh , as qhjmevra :— tov before uJ becomes qou- , as qou[dwr for to; u{dwr .


o{ , Ion. and Dor. masc. for relat. pron. o{" ,

II. generally, neut. of the same.


jojav »a<Eth>1/4 , woe, woe! Lat. vae ! Aesch.

o[ar, [OAR

[O ØAR , o[aro", hJ , a wife, in gen. pl., ojavrwne{neka sfeteravwn Il.; contr. dat. pl., ajmunevmenai w[ressin Ib.


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