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H .


H, h, h\ta , tov , indecl., seventh letter of the Gr. alphabet; as numeral hV = ojktwv and o[gdoo" , but Ëh =
8000. The uncial form of Eta (H) was a double
e (E E) and prob. it was pronounced as a long e , cf. dh`lo" (from develo" ). The old Alphabet had only one sign (E) for the e sound, till the long vowels h and w were introduced from the Samian Alphabet in the archonship of Euclides, B. C. 403. The sign H, before it was taken to represent the double e , was used for the spiritus asper, as HOS for o{" , (which remains in the Latin
H). When H was taken to represent
, it was at the same time cut in two, so that |- represented the spir. asper, -| the spir. lenis; whence came the present signs for the breathings. As to dialectic changes,

1. the vowel h was much used by the Ion. , being in Aeol. and Dor. replaced by a<Eth> , as also in Att. , but mostly after r or a vowel, prhvssw qwvrhx ijhtrov" , Att. pravssw qwvrax ijatrov" .

2. in Att. , ei and hi were not seldom changed into h/ , as klei`qra klh`/qra, Nhrhivde" Nhrh`/de" .
3. Dor. and Aeol. for ei , as th`no", kh`no" for kei`no" .


h[ , Ep. also hjev , Conjunction with two chief senses, Disjunctive and Comparative.

A. DISJUNCTIVE , or, Lat. vel , to subjoin one or more clauses differing from the first, h[kousa" h] oujk h[kousa" h] kwfh`/ levgw ; Aesch. :— h[. . , h[ . . , either. . , or. . , Lat. aut. . , aut. . , Hom ., etc.

II. in indirect Questions, eij. . , h] . . , whether. . , or. . , Lat. utrum. . , an. . , eijdw`men eij nikw`men h] nikwvmeqa Aesch .:—but in Hom. h]. . , h] (or h\ ) . . is used for eij , Lat. an , eijpe; h] . . , say whether. . , Od.

B. COMPARATIVE , than, as, Lat. quam , Hom ., etc. : after Adjs. which imply comparison, as a[llo", e{tero", ajlloi`o", diplavsio", ejnantivo", i[dio", pollaplavsio" , and after the Advs. privn, provsqen ; so, after Verbs implying comparison, bouvlesqai h[ . . to wish rather than. .; fqavnein h[ . . to come sooner than. . , etc.

2. h[ sometimes joins two Comparatives, when they both refer to the same subject, ejlafrovteroi h] ajfneiovteroi to be swifter rather than richer, Od.; tacuvtera h] sofwvtera Hdt.

3. rarely after a Sup. , plei`sta qwumavsia e[cei Ai[gupto" h] a[llh pa`sa cwvrh Id.
4. h[ is often omitted with numerals after plevwn, ejlavttwn, meivwn , as, e[th plevw eJbdomhvkonta Plat. [When h] ouj, h] oujk come together in a verse, the two coalesce into one syll. ]


h[ , an exclamation, to call ones attention to a thing, h[, h[, siwvpa Ar.


h\ , Adv. , with two chief senses, Confirmative and Interrogative:

I. TO CONFIRM an assertion, in truth, truly, verily, of a surety, Hom ., etc. ; often strengthd. by other Particles, as h\ a[ra, h\ dhv, h\ dhv pou, h\ mavla , etc. ;—and to express doubt, h\ pou ;— h\ mhvn , Ion. and Ep. h\ mevn, h\ mavn , used in protestations and oaths, su; moi o[mosson, h\ mevn moi ajrhvxein Hom ., etc.

II. in INTERROG . sentences, Lat. num ? pray? or can it be? —also h\ oujk . . ; Lat. nonne ? Particles are often added to this h\, h\ rJa, h\ a[ra dhv , etc.


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